Bacterial Viability within Dental Calculus: An Untrodden, Inquisitive Clinico-Patho- Microbiological Research ZC71-ZC75
Dr. Swati Gupta,
House no.696, Sector 15-A, Near Vidya Mandir School, Faridabad, Haryana-121007, India.
Introduction: Chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases i.e. gingivitis and periodontitis are one of the most common afflictions faced by human beings. Dental plaque, which is a pool of pathogenic microorganisms, remains to be current mainstay in etiopathogenesis. Dental calculus, which is a mineralized product of this plaque remains ignored and is considered merely as an ash heap of minor significance. However, the intriguing array in disease etiopathogenesis bulldozed researchers to suspect the role of calculus in disease chrysalis but still the viability of bacteria inside calculus and thus its pathogenicity remains an intricacy; the answer to which lies in the Pandoraâ€™s Box.
Aim: The present study was undertaken to investigate the viability of bacteria within dental calculus along with their identification. Also, to classify dental calculus on the basis of mineralization and to observe the variation of viable microflora found in dental calculus with the extent of mineralization and disease severity.
Materials and Methods: A total of 60 samples were obtained, by harvesting two samples of supragingival calculus from each patient having chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. These samples were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Samples of Group A were kept non-irradiated and samples of Group B were exposed to UV radiation. The samples were categorized into less, moderately and highly mineralized according to the force required for crushing them. All the crushed calculus samples were then divided into three parts. These were used for dark-field microscopy, gram staining and bacterial cultures. Bacterial identification of the cultures obtained was also carried out by performing various biochemical assays.
Results: The present study revealed the presence of motile spirochaetes within the samples under dark-field microscope. Gram staining revealed presence of numerous gram positive cocci and gram negative bacilli. Bacterial cultures showed growth of variety of aerobic and capnophilic microorganisms.
Conclusion: The present study concludes the presence of viable aerobic and capnophilic bacteria inside dental calculus which may reside within the lacunae and channels in the calculus.