Study of Serum Total PSA and Free PSA as an Oncological Marker in Breast Tumour
Dr. Elteza Tahjiba Jahir,
Demonstrator, Department of Biochemistry, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati-781032, Assam, India.
Introduction: Breast Cancer (BC) cases are rising alarmingly all over the world and India is not an exception. This rising trend is due to an increased age at first child birth, decreased breast feeding, and the changing lifestyle mostly in urban India. With the advent of more sensitive methodologies and research works in this field, it has been suggested that Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer besides other established tumour markers.
Aim: To study the molecular forms of PSA-total and free PSA in benign and malignant tumours and to analyse their association with the tumour burden.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in collaboration with Gauhati Medical College and Hospital and Dr B Borooah Cancer Institute, Guwahati, Assam, India. Women in the age group of 18-65 years with recently diagnosed tumour (benign/malignant) in the breast were included in the study. Women taking Oral Contraceptive Pill (OCP), hormone replacement therapy, with past/present history of gynaecological/other malignancy and chronic endocrine disease like diabetes, thyroid disorders were excluded. The case group comprised of 50 female subjects with newly diagnosed Benign Breast Disease (BBD) and 50 subjects with BC, while 50 age matched healthy females without any signs and symptoms of breast discomfort were included in the control group. Laboratory tests done were Serum Total PSA (TPSA), Free PSA (FPSA), Fasting Blood Glucose (FBS), serum urea, serum creatinine and fasting lipid profile. TPSA and FPSA was measured again in both the test groups after 10-14 days of surgery/therapy.
Results: A fall in postoperative value of total and free PSA in BC case group was noticed. In Grade I tumours the mean value of total PSA (1.813 ng/ml) and free PSA (1.149 ng/ml) were higher than those with Grade III tumours (TPSA-1.07 ng/ml and FPSA-1.002 ng/ml). Mean value of Fasting Blood Sugar (FBG), total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in BC case group was higher than the control group.
Conclusion: From the study, we can conclude PSA as a possible new marker for diagnosis and prognosis of BC.