Malassezia Yeast and Cytokine
Gene Polymorphism in Atopic
Dr. Charu Jain,
275, Ground Floor, Gagan Vihar, Delhi- 110051, India.
Introduction: Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a recurrent chronic condition associated with microorganism and their interaction with the susceptible host. Malassezia yeast is a known commensal which is thought to provoke the recurrent episodes of symptoms in atopic dermatitis patients. Malassezia immunomodulatory properties along with defective skin barrier in such host, results in disease manifestation. Here, we studied Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in IL10 and IFN ? genes of the host and its relation with susceptibility to Malassezia infection.
Aim: To isolate Malassezia yeast from AD patients and compare the genetic susceptibility of the host by correlating the cytokine gene polymorphism with the control subjects.
Materials and Methods: Study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. It was a prospective observational study done in Department of Microbiology and Department of Dermatology and Venereology in University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, Delhi. Sample size comprised of 38 cases each of AD. Skin scrapings were used for fungal culture on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and Modified Dixon Agar (MDA) and isolated were identified as per conventional phenotypic methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples collected from all study subjects. Cytokine genotyping was carried out by Amplification Refractory Mutations System- Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) with sequence specific primers. Three SNPs (IL10-1082A/G; IL10-819/592C/T; IFN-?+874A/T) in two cytokine genes were assessed in all the patients and healthy controls.
Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square Test or Fisherâ€™s-Exact Test and Bonferroniâ€™s correction.
Results: In AD group, Malassezia yeasts were cultured in 24 out of 38 samples and thus the identification rate was 63.1 percent as compared to healthy group, 52.6 percent (20/38). Significant difference in allele, or genotype distribution were observed in IL10-819/592C/T and IFN-?+874A/T gene polymorphism in AD group.
Conclusion: Higher isolation rate in cases as compared to control group highlights the implication of Malassezia in AD. Association between specific cytokine gene polymorphism and clinical outcome was found to be significant in study group. The result of cytokine gene polymorphism in the present study demonstrated susceptibility of host to Malassezia infection.