Glycaemic and Insulin Response to Equi-Quantity of Selected Common Indian Staples in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Dr. Kasturi Sen Ray,
A-19 Hill Side, IIT-Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Diet therapy is one of the corner stoneâ€™s in the management of diabetes. Keeping the blood sugar level as close to normal is the main focus of dietary management of diabetes. A typical Indian meal is largely composed of Carbohydrates (CHO). Consumption of staple cereals, forms the major source of CHO in the Indian diet. However, CHO metabolism is seen to be completely deranged in a person with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to select the cereal which has lower postprandial glycaemic impact for subjects with compromised metabolic status. Preference between two main staple cereals rice and wheat as staple food, especially for diabetic group, will depend on the equi-quantity based postprandial glycaemic impact of these cereals.
Aim: To identify the cereals, better suited for individuals with diabetes (based on postprandial glycaemic and insulinemic impact of rice and whole wheat Indian flat bread i.e., chapatti).
Materials and Methods: After an overnight fast and upto 2 hours for every half an hour, finger tip blood samples for fasting and postprandial blood sugar was assessed. Venous blood for estimation of insulin levels were also collected from enrolled diabetic individuals and paired normal subjects. About 50 gm of test food like boiled rice, whole wheat chapatti and white bread as standard food were given on different occasions. Glucose and insulin levels were measured using glucometer and ECLIA method.
Results: Contrary to the popular belief, it was seen that rice exerted a lower peak and lower postprandial glycaemic and insulinemic response in both the study groups. Factors such as co-nutrient, moisture and fiber content all exert an impact on the postprandial glucose and insulin levels. With this the grain structure, particle size and amylose: amylopectin ratio are also important determinants.
Conclusion: When foods are considered as a whole and not a single nutrient, rice proves to be a better product for effective management of blood sugars in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.