Colour Doppler Evaluation of Extracranial Carotid Artery in Patients Presenting with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Correlation with Various Risk Factors
Dr. Samrin Haq,
Junior Resident, Department of Radiology, GMC, Room no. 204, Patiala-147001, Punjab, India.
Introduction: Stroke is defined as an abrupt onset of neurologic deficit due to vascular cause. It is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity all over the world making early diagnosis and treatment inevitable. Lesions of extra cranial carotid arteries are implicated in majority of cases of acute ischemic stroke. Carotid Doppler is a non-invasive imaging technique, with sensitivity approaching that of angiography. Computed Tomography (CT) plays a major role to assess the site and nature of the lesion in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Aim: To evaluate the role of carotid Doppler sonography in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke and find association between carotid artery stenosis and risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking and age.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 50 patients. CT scan was done to diagnose acute ischemic stroke in patients who presented to emergency medicine with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke. Retrospectively CIMT and plaque characterization were done by gray scale ultrasound. Site and severity of stenosis were assessed on colour Doppler. All these findings were correlated with clinical presentation and risk factors. The collected data was statistically analyzed and multivariant logistic regression (R-value) test of significance was applied by using SPSS 16.0 version software.
Results: On carotid Doppler, ICA/CCA PSV ratio was good predictor of stenosis and ratio above three indicates significant stenosis (>60%). Carotid bulb was most common location of plaque formation. Hypertension and diabetes were the most prevalent risk factors for cerebral ischemic stroke. Out of total 50 patients, 32 had hypertension (64%) and 22 had diabetes (44%). Hypertension and hyperlipidemia showed maximum mean R-values (0.275 and 0.048 respectively) and positive correlation with stenosis and increased CIMT in acute ischemic stroke patients.
Conclusion: The present study highlights the importance of Doppler sonography in acute ischemic stroke patients through surveillance of atherosclerosis.