Evaluation of C-Reactive Protein and Fibrinogen in Patients with Chronic
and Aggressive Periodontitis:
A Clinico-Biochemical Study
Dr. Swaroop Chandy,
Senior Lecturer, Department of Periodontics, St Gregorios Dental College, Cochin-686681, Kerala, India.
Introduction: Periodontal disease is characterised by chronic infection and inflammation in periodontal tissues leading to destruction of alveolar bone with subsequent tooth loss. Periodontal infections are the result of an interaction between tooth associated microbial biofilms and the host defences. Periodontal pathogens can affect local and systemic immune and inflammatory responses.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP), plasma fibrinogen and peripheral blood levels in healthy subjects, chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 55 subjects, 27 males and 28 females were selected for the study. Blood samples were taken from healthy controls (n=20) and patients with chronic periodontitis (n=20) and aggressive periodontitis (n=15). The periodontal status of each patient was assessed by recording Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S), Bleeding Index (BI), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD) and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL). The levels of serum CRP were measured using high sensitivity Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and levels of plasma fibrinogen were measured using Quantitative Immunoturbidimetric assay. Data description was done in the form of mean and standard deviation and analysis of data was done using one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and Students t-test to test the statistical significance between groups.
Results: The levels of serum CRP and plasma fibrinogen was increased in patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis when compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). A positive correlation was found to exist between levels of clinical parameters like OHI-S, BI, PPD and CAL when compared with CRP and fibrinogen as well as with the study groups.
Conclusion: The finding of the present study suggests the role of serum as a diagnostic marker in inflammatory conditions and indicates that levels of CRP and fibrinogen may serve as important biomarkers for evaluating the association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases.