To Evaluate and Compare Periodontal Disease and Smoking as a Parallel Risk Factor for Systemic Health by Gauging the Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels
Dr. Ruchi Dinesh Raval,
Senior Lecturer, Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Manubhai Patel Dental College,
Hospital and ORI, Vadodara-390011, Gujarat, India.
Introduction: Physiologic and metabolic changes that occur immediately after a damage or disease are known as Acute Phase Reaction (APR). Acute Phase Proteins (APP) are blood proteins secreted by hepatocytes during APR C-Reactive Protein (CRP) being the important one.
Aim: Present study was designed to estimate and compare the levels of the serum CRP in current smokers, former smokers and non-smokers, with and without periodontitis.
Materials and Methods: An experimental study was planned on 165 subjects who were divided into four groups. Group 1- nonsmokers with periodontitis. Group 2- smokers without periodontitis. Group 3- smokers with periodontitis. Group 4- former smokers without periodontitis. Healthy controls were not included in the study as the normal range of CRP in health is already established. Periodontal examination was done and serum CRP was measured. After getting the acceptance to be a part of the study, written informed consent was taken from each participant. Data analysis was done by ANOVA and post-hoc tests.
Results: Highest level of CRP was found in smokers with periodontitis followed by non-smokers with periodontitis and smokers without periodontitis. Former smokers had minimum CRP compared to the other groups (p-value=0.03).
Conclusion: Periodontitis alone and in combination with smoking increases the systemic inflammatory burden and associated cardiovascular risk. This fact should be communicated thoroughly to the general population, general dentist, physicians and cardiovascular specialist to enhance early screening and multidisciplinary treatment.