Serial Changes in Complete Blood Counts in Patients with Leptospirosis: Our Experience EC21-EC24
Dr. Deepa Sowkur Anandarama Adiga,
Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Light House Hill Road, Mangalore-575001, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. It is endemic in many parts of the world. The symptoms vary between milder forms to severe type with organ dysfunction. The disease presents with diagnostic challenge as it clinically mimics acute febrile illness due to other causes.
Aim: To study serial changes in complete blood counts in patients with leptospirosis.
Materials and Methods: A retrospectively collected data was prospectively studied for clinical and laboratory data of leptospirosis patients proven by raised IgM titres by ELISA on day 2 (counted from day of admission of patient to hospital) of unexplained fever. The changes in complete blood counts from admission upto the discharge of the patient were studied. SPSS version 13 (SPSS Inc. Chicago) was used for data analysis. The collected data was analysed using frequency, percentage, mean, median, standard deviation and Mann-Whitney test. A p-value less than 0.05 were considered significant.
Results: Mean haemoglobin concentration showed a progressive decline (<12.5 gm/dl) from day 1 to day 7 in both mild and severe disease. Platelet counts were significantly low (p=0.002), (<1,50,000 cells/mm3) in severe disease and showed a declining trend as compared to mild disease. Total leukocyte counts were significantly higher (p=0.001), (>11,000 cells/m3) in patients with severe disease from day 4 to day 5 of the illness.
Conclusion: Complete blood count is a routine test done in the monitoring of patients with leptospirosis. Declining haemoglobin, marked thrombocytopenia and a normal to high total leukocyte count will help in early detection of severe disease and thus preventing mortality by timely management.