Understanding Cancer Stem Cells in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Critical Update in Development of New Approaches EE01-EE05
Dr. Deepak Passi,
A-122/5A, Shalimar Garden, Extension-2, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad-201005, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) have an important role in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). HNSCC is considered as one of the major health problems throughout the world. These self-renewing cells are responsible for resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapy. CSCs have the ability of cancer recurrence; metastasis and can form a heterogeneous tumour. The idea of 'CSCs' has led the scientific community to a new era in the field of research and possibly effective treatment modalities for cancer in the future. This paper aims primarily to review the recent advancements made in the use of stem cells in the treatment of cancer. Secondly, this review presents a discussion on the consideration of CSCs being the backbone in the development of cancer and, precisely the role played by the CSCs in carcinogenesis and its outcome leading to development of possible cancer treatment in the future. Medical databases including Pubmed Central, Google Scholar, Scopus, Copernicus, Science Direct, etc., were used to find all relevant articles related to HNSCC and its relation with CSCs, various mechanisms and therapeutic approaches. Various therapeutic approaches have been employed for the management of HNSCC such as surgical method, chemotherapies and radiotherapies and combinations or formulations of different drugs, but in most cases complete cure has been a failure. This is mostly because the CSCs escape such therapies. However, recent developments have led to the use of targeted therapy such as targeting cell surface markers or signalling pathways, targeting micro environment or blocking epithelial mesenchymal transition, immunotherapy and other approaches as well, leading to the complete eradication of CSCs in HNSCC successfully. Thus, this review presents a better understanding of CSCs and its mechanism of action for development of new treatment modalities.