Anatomical Study of Left Coronary Artery and its Variations– Cadaveric Study AC01-AC05
Dr. Anaimalai Kandavadivelu Manickavasuki,
Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research,
Coimbatore-641004, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Variations of the anatomy of the Coronary arteries are quiet common and have been reported previously in the literature. Right and Left coronary arteries which supply blood to the heart originates from the ascending aorta. Any coronary artery disorder may have serious implications by reducing the blood supply to heart leading to myocardial infarction and death.
Aim: To identify left coronary artery branching pattern and its variations.
Materials and Methods: Fifty formalin fixed wet specimens of heart of both sexes with intact coronary arterial pattern were collected and studied. The left coronary artery and its branches were carefully dissected out and were analysed for variable pattern in each specimen.
Results: Left coronary artery (LCA) was found to be hypoplastic in six (12%) specimens. In one specimen (2%), hypoplastic LCA was crossed by a vein and had communication with the vein. Trifurcation of LCA was seen in 17 (34%) specimens, Circumflex artery was short in one (2%) specimen. Kugelâ€™s artery was observed in three (6%) specimens. Median artery was found in seven specimens (14%). The left coronary artery and circumflex artery were absent in one (2%) specimen. In case where left coronary artery was absent, left anterior descending artery and circumflex artery were taking origin directly from left anterior aortic sinus. Left anterior descending artery showed variation in the form of short course (2 cm), discontinuous and embedded within myocardial tissue in 2% of cases each. However the circumflex artery also showed short course in one (2%) case.
Conclusion: The variations of the left coronary artery observed in the study are important for interpretation of coronary angiography, surgical revascularization of myocardium and embryological interpretations.