Evaluation of the Effect of Enicostemma axillare Extract on Migration of MCF-7 Cell Line BC10-BC13
Dr. Krishnamoorthy Gunasekaran,
Head of the Department, Department of Biochemistry, Rajas Dental College and Hospital, Thirurajapuram, Kavalkinaru Junction, Thirunelveli-627105, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women and majority of them are due to metastasis of cancerous cells. The use of plant based compounds as complementary or alternative treatment has gained much significance in the recent times due to their low toxicity levels. Enicostemma axillare is the perennial herb known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-cancer and hypoglycaemic properties.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of E. axillare extract on the migration of cancerous cells.
Materials and Methods: The secondary metabolites from the plant were extracted using ethanol. Wound healing assay and western blotting were used to study anti-migratory effect and expression of migration associated proteins in human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. Statistical analyses were conducted by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests, the p-value <0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: The rate of migration of cells in control group was 100% accounting to a mean of 325 cells. In case of cell lines treated with E. axillare extract, the rate of migration was 32% accounting to a mean of 104 cells. There was a significant reduction (p-value <0.05) in the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors (VEGFR), phosphorylated Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (pVEGFR), Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), Matrix Metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) and Protein Kinase B (Akt) proteins in cell lines treated with E. axillare extract (12.5 µg) in comparison to the control. In addition, the extract also significantly upregulate the expression of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) and protein (p-value <0.01).
Conclusion: The study indicates that E. axillare extract inhibit the migration of cancer cells by inhibiting the expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMPs) and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFRs).
Therefore, E. axillare extract can be used in formulations for breast cancer treatments.