Sonographic Diagnosis of Brain Abnormalities in Infants: A Retrospective Study SC06-SC10
Dr. Leonore Zogaj,
Department of Neurology, Paediatric Clinic, University Clinical Centre of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo.
Introduction: Central Nervous System (CNS) anomalies are the second most frequent serious congenital anomalies, after congenital heart diseases. Cranial ultrasound presents a non-invasive as well as safe and cost-effective tool for proper diagnosis, follow-up and management of these patients.
Aim: The present retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence and type of brain anomalies using cranial ultrasound as a diagnostic tool.
Materials and Methods: Data of infants who underwent cranial ultrasound at the study center, between January 2010 and December 2017, were retrospectively studied. Indications for cranial ultrasound scanning were: prematurity, respiratory distress, neurological deficiency, suspected syndromes and other congenital anomalies.
Results: Selective cranial ultrasound was performed in 4256 (5.8%) infants, and 371 (8.7%) of them were found to have brain abnormalities. Major abnormalities were found in 245 (66%) patients.
Conclusion: Intracranial haemorrhages and their possible consequences (ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus, periventricular leukomalacia) were the most common anomalies detected. Hence, prematurity and other perinatal risk factors still present a major issue in Kosovo. Also, prenatal diagnosis rate was very low. Familiarity with ultrasound features of brain anatomy, in particular during prenatal period, contributes to an early diagnosis and proper management of major and rarer congenital brain anomalies.