Histopathological Panorama of Leprosy in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bihar EC12-EC15
Dr. Mamta Kumari,
R Block, Road No. 1, QNOH/1, Patna-800001, Bihar, India.
Introduction: Leprosy also known as Hansenâ€™s disease is one of the oldest disease known to mankind. It is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It still remains as a major public health problem facing India. Nearly, 60% of all world leprosy cases are reported from India. The spectrum of presentation of leprosy is very wide. Histopathology is an important tool in making a definitive diagnosis. The objective of the study is to describe the histopathological profile of leprosy in the state of Bihar.
Aim: To study the histopathological spectrum of leprosy at a tertiary care centre of Bihar.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective hospital-based study of clinically diagnosed leprosy cases was conducted over a period of 28 months (January 2015 to April 2017). Lesional skin biopsies obtained were fixed, processed and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) followed by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining. The lesions were classified on microscopy as per Ridley-Jopling classification.
Results: A total of 200 cases were studied. Highest incidence was in the 11 to 30 years age group for both males and females. Males were more affected (M:F=2.4:1). Most common clinical feature was loss of sensation. The commonest reported histopathological type was borderline lepromatous (43%) followed by borderline (17%). Overall ZN staining was positive in 56 (28%) cases.
Conclusion: The spectrum of presentation of leprosy is very wide and there is clinical overlap between different types of leprosy. Histopathology still remains the gold standard for early diagnosis and classification of the disease. Accurate diagnosis forms the backbone for appropriate treatment and preventing deformities and drug resistance.