Effect of Heavy Metal Ions on Candida Isolated from HIV Positive Patients ZC12-ZC14
Monal M Kukde,
Reader, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Rajesh Ramdashji Kambe Dental College and Hospital, Kanheri Sarap, Akola, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Over 90% of AIDS patients and 1/3rd of HIV seropositive patients are affected by Oral candidiasis. Moreover, the frequency of HIV related oral candidiasis is increased when CD4 count falls <400/mm3 of blood. The widespread use of antifungal drugs in People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) has led to emergence of drug-resistant strains of Candida species.
Aim: To detect the effect of heavy metal ions on Candida species and also to find the relationship between CD4 count and oral candidiasis in PLHA.
Materials and Methods: A total number of 25 HIV positive patients were studied after taking written informed consent. From each patient oral swabs from tongue and hard palate were collected and thus a total of 50 specimens were processed for isolation of Candida as per conventional methods. Effects of heavy metal ions like Lead, Zinc, Silver, Mercury and Cadmium on 26 Candida strains isolated were studied by agar dilution method. Percentages and proportions were used using frequency tables.
Results: All 26 (100%) Candida strains were resistant to Zinc ions with 100 mM concentration whereas all of these 26 (100%) Candida strains were sensitive to Cadmium ions even with 1 mM concentration. Maximum 8 (32%) PLHA from whom Candida species was isolated had CD4 count 300-399/mm3 of blood.
Conclusion: Though heavy metal salts can be used for therapeutic use at very high dilutions heavy metals toxicity can result in long-term exposure. Heavy metal contacts with the skin also cause toxicity to different organ and damage to Central Nervous System (CNS), erythematous area over the skin, hyperpigmentation and argyria. Further study with animal experiment and human volunteers is required.