High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein as a Marker of Future Cardiovascular Events in Chronic Kidney Disease Stage-5 Patients BC18-BC21
Dr. Nisha Abraham,
Department of Biochemistry, Believers Church Medical College Hospital, Kuttappuzha, Thiruvalla-689103, Kerala, India.
Introduction: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) has been recognised as a worldwide health threat and understanding its complex patho-physiological mechanisms could go a long way in taking care of patients with CKD. One of the most important causes for mortality in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients is Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). ESRD is a low grade chronic inflammatory state, suspected to promote atherosclerosis.
Aim: To determine if there is any association between elevated High-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) and development of future cardiovascular events in stage-5 CKD patients.
Materials and Methods: Forty-five CKD stage-5 patients were included in the study, after ruling out patients with established CVD. According to categorisation proposed by the American Heart Association for the cut-off value of hs-CRP-value (3 mg/L), patients were divided into two groups. Those who had hs-CRP more than 3 mg/L were considered to have ‘elevated hs-CRP’ and those who had a value 3 mg/L and below were considered to have ‘normal hs-CRP’ levels. These patients were followed-up monthly, for a period of one year, to record any occurrence of cardiovascular events (coronary events/cerebrovascular accidents/peripheral occlusive vascular disease). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0 was used for analysis. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical comparison between the groups and a p-value of 0.05 or less was considered to be statistically significant. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was also plotted to determine the cut-off value for hs-CRP based on the occurrence of any cardiovascular event.
Results: Baseline hs-CRP level was more than 3 mg/L in 42% of patients. Among those who had elevated hs-CRP, 78.9% of patients developed cardiovascular events during the follow-up period. This signifies a strong association between elevated hs-CRP and CVD in ESRD patients. The hs-CRP cut-off point of 3 mg/L was obtained from ROC curve.
Conclusion: There was a significant association between elevated hs-CRP and development of cardiovascular events in ESRD patients. Hence, hs-CRP can be used as a marker of future cardiovascular events in CKD stage-5 patients.