Where do we Stand on the Molecular Diagnostics for the Detection of Human Papillomavirus? A Comprehensive Review BE01-BE06
Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, JSS Medical College, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Bannimantapa, Mysore, Karnataka, India.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a vital role in the development of various cancers and imposes a burden on the global health. Detection of HPV infection is a challenge to the healthcare industry as they cannot be cultured and their fascinating life cycle limits the accuracy of serological methods. Hence, molecular assays are the gold standard for the accurate viral detection and genotyping. Currently, various methodologies are available with great sensitivity and specificity and are even clinically validated as screening tools. However, there are only a few that are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and much more are suitable only for research. At present, the molecular methods available mainly depend on signal amplification, nucleic acid amplification and hybridisation assays for detecting and genotyping HPV infection, all with their own advantages and drawbacks. There is further scope for the development of more reliable, cost-effective diagnostic techniques that can harness the power of next genome sequencing, mutation analysis and may further improve the chances of early detection and prevention of HPV related cancers. This review summarises the present knowledge on currently available molecular diagnostic tests for the detection and genotyping of HPV infection and their possible utility in a clinical setting.