Efficacy of Tramadol Hydrochloride as Local Anaesthetic and Analgesic Agent for Extraction of Maxillary Teeth ZC26-ZC30
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Gitam Dental College and Hospital, Gandhi Nagar Campus, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam-530045, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: To make the extraction experience pain-free administering local anaesthesia before dental extraction is standard protocol worldwide. Over the years, the concept of local anaesthesia and anaesthetic agents has evolved. Apart from conventional esters and amides, opioids have also shown the local anaesthetic property. In circumstances where the patients are allergic to esters and amides or when they are unavailable, or unobtainable the need for an alternative local anaesthetic agent arises.
Aim: To assess the efficacy of 1 mL of 50 mg tramadol hydrochloride as a local anaesthetic agent when given as buccal infiltration for extraction of maxillary teeth. Also, assess its analgesic effect.
Materials and Methods: A prospective, non-randomised, non-blinded study was done from October 2017 to August 2019 in 90 patients who required extraction of maxillary teeth. A 1 mL of 50 mg tramadol hydrochloride was given via buccal infiltration as a local anaesthetic-agent and its efficacy was evaluated by assessing the onset of action, peak effect, the intensity of pain during extraction, duration of anaesthesia, and postoperative analgesic intake. No palatal injection was given. The data was analysed using SPSS v. 20. Descriptive statistics were represented in percentages. Statistical tests used were unpaired t-test and chi-square test. The level of significance was considered to be statistically significant when the p-value was ≤0.05.
Results: A 1 mL of 50 mg tramadol hydrochloride, when given as a buccal infiltration, has been effective in providing local anaesthesia for extraction of maxillary teeth. It also provides a good postoperative analgesia within the first 24 hours post-extraction. It was noted that patients undergoing extraction of posterior maxillary teeth experienced more pain when compared to those undergoing extraction of anterior maxillary teeth with a significant p value of <0.001.
Conclusion: A 1 mL of 50 mg tramadol hydrochloride, when given as a buccal infiltration, has been effective in providing local anaesthesia for extraction of anterior maxillary teeth. It is also proven to provide good postoperative analgesia for the first 24 hours post-extraction.