Histological Study of Placental Changes in Low Birth Weight Neonates in a Tertiary Care Hospital EC33-EC36
Dr. Shivashekar Ganapathy,
SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Potheri, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Low Birth Weight (LBW) in the newborn is a major health problem in our country and across the world. Identifying the pathological changes in placenta can help in understanding the pathogenesis of LBW babies.
Aim: To describe the histological changes in placenta of LBW baby and compare them with the placenta of normal birth weight baby and to find out the maternal risk factors associated with LBW baby.
Materials and Methods: A case-control study was done on a total of 140 samples which were collected in the study period of August 2017-August 2019 in SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, with 70 placentas from LBW delivery and 70 placentas from normal birth weight delivery. Placentas from preterm delivery were excluded from this study. Histological changes in placenta were assessed in both the groups. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 17. Independent sample Student’s t-test and Chi-square test were used for comparison between two groups.
Results: Histological changes like chorioamnionitis, syncitial knots, calcification, Perivillous Fibrin Deposition (PVFD), stromal fibrosis and basement membrane thickening were observed more frequently in placentas from LBW delivery. The commonest histological finding in present study was villous stromal fibrosis in 58 cases (82.9%) followed by excessive syncytial knots in 57 cases (81.4%). In this study anaemia was the commonest maternal risk factor associated with LBW baby.
Conclusion: The structure of placenta has strong relationship with the pregnancy outcome. There are few significant histological changes in placenta of LBW neonates. These changes have an impact in the development of the baby. Study about these changes provides a scope for prevention of certain morbidities in subsequent pregnancies.