Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and its Relation to Pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index CC01-CC03
Near Canara Bank, Raja Road Nileshwar (P.O), Kasargod, Kerala-671314, Kannur, India.
Introduction: Obesity mediates a systemic inflammatory response in our body which includes insulin resistance and glucose dysregulation. Increased Body Mass Index (BMI) associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) leads to a state of insulin resistance additive to insulin resistance of GDM.
Aim: To assess the relationship between GDM and pre-pregnancy BMI.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study enrolled 64 women with GDM and 64 without GDM, attending antenatal care clinic at a tertiary care hospital, after obtaining their informed consent. Obstetric history, pre-pregnancy BMI and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) values were noted. Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group in India (DIPSI) criterion was used for diagnosing GDM. The BMI was categorised according to World Health Organisation (WHO) criterion. Data obtained was statistically analysed.
Results: A total of 41 (93.2%) women with GDM had pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (overweight and obese) compared to 3 (6.8%) in controls (χ2 value=50.01, p≤0.001). Mean±SD of pre-pregnancy BMI in women with GDM was significantly higher (26.38±2.74 kg/m2) compared to controls i.e., 22.26±1.54 kg/m2 (unpaired t-test: p≤0.001).
Conclusion: GDM was found to be significantly associated with pre-pregnancy BMI. Appropriate interventions and risk factor modifications are recommended to prevent GDM and its complications.