Inventive Methods Used to Study and Control Thermal Necrosis: A Review KE01-KE05
Rajesh V. Dahibhate,
G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.
Orthopedic surgeries use screw and plate fixations. Bone drilling is performed for smooth and minimum damage to bone surface during screw insertion. Bone drilling creates a hole with circular cross-section. This process involves cutting and material removal with a helical drill tool. Heat is generated at the drilling site due to cutting, shearing of bone material by drill tool and friction between drill tool and bone surface. Previous research studies found that if temperature at drilling site reaches 47°C and remains the same for one minute, irreversible cell damage i.e. thermal necrosis can occur. Thermal necrosis causes ring sequestrum around the pin; this leads to a vicious cycle involving secondary infection, discharge and pin loosening. This postoperative complication can only be rectified by removal of pin and sequestrum, curettage of the tract and pin replacement and so thermal necrosis- the root cause must be avoided and attended very seriously. To avoid thermal necrosis, postoperative complications and delay in patient rehabilitation, researchers are studying bone drilling in detail. In this review paper, a discussion is made on different innovative methods that are turning points in the study of thermal necrosis and the latest technologically improved equipment devised by researchers. These inventive methods have used experimental set ups, software-based simulations and training programs. The author also conducted experiments on female goat rib bone and based on these observations an improved drilling machine is suggested.