Visual Impairment among Older Adults in Selangor State of Malaysia: The Grand Challenge Project NC05-NC09
Dr. Mohd Harimi Abd Rahman,
Optometry and Vision Sciences Programme, Centre for Rehabilitation and Special
Needs, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja
Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia.
Introduction: The increased prevalence of Visual Impairment (VI) in the elderly is in tandem with the increase of its populations in Malaysia.
Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of VI among older adults in Selangor, Malaysia as it is one of the highly populated states in the country.
Materials and Methods: A total of 230 adults aged 60 years and above from the longitudinal study on neuroprotective model for healthy longevity (TUA) took part in this study from August 2018 to May 2019. Information on socio-demographic, smoking status and health condition were obtained through interview. Habitual distance Visual Acuity (VA) was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Refractive error was determined using retinoscopy technique followed by subjective refraction. Subjects’ height and weight were measured for their Body Mass Index (BMI). Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence of VI and status of refractive error. Pearson correlation was used to determine correlation between household income and VI whereas Kendall’s Tau-b was used to determine correlation between age, educational level and smoking status with VI. Multivariate logistic regression was carried out to determine the risk factors of VI.
Results: Analysis was performed on 201 subjects (29 were excluded due to incomplete data) and the mean±SD VA for better eye was 0.23±0.20 logMAR. Overall, emmetropia has the highest percentage (37.3%), followed by hyperopia (34.3%) and myopia (28.4%). This study found that the prevalence of VI among older adults in Selangor was 27.3%. Pearson correlation showed significant correlation between monthly household income with VI. Kendall Tau-b showed a significant correlation between age, educational level and smoking status with VI. Multivariate logistic regression shows significant association between age older than 80-year-old with VI.
Conclusion: The prevalence of VI among the elderly in Selangor was notably high (27.3%) and greater age is associated with VI.