Endotoxemia among Postpartum Mothers with Periodontitis Delivering Low Birth Weight Babies: A Case Control Study in Rural Indian Population ZC10-ZC13
Kusumdevi Sunderlal Dugar Jain Dental College, Cossipore, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Introduction: The presence of circulating maternal endotoxin can arise from pathogenic periodontal bacteria resulting in preterm labour and delivery of Low Birth Weight (LBW) infant.
Aim: The aim of this study was to find if periodontitis induced maternal endotoxemia could be a risk factor for delivery of LBW infant.
Materials and Methods: A total of 60 primiparous mothers between the age group of 18-35 years delivering LBW infants (weight ≤2500 gm) were selected for this case control study. Cases were 30 postpartum mothers with periodontitis whereas controls were 30 postpartum mothers without periodontitis. Periodontitis was defined according to WHO criteria, as pocket probing depth of ≥4 mm in atleast one site. Endotoxin level was assessed by a quantitative end point chromogenic limulus amebeocyte lysate (Lonza QCL 1000Â®). Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated to see if periodontitis was a risk factor.
Results: Periodontitis increased the risk for occurrence of endotoxemia by more than three times among mothers delivering LBW infants with an OR of 3.21.
Conclusion: Maternal endotoxemia due to periodontal infection can form a possible biological explanation for periodontitis as a risk factor for delivery of LBW babies. Future research is needed to study the effect of endotoxins in periodontal pathogenesis.