Dengue and Chikungunya Mono and Co-infections among Patients with Acute Febrile Illness DC17-DC21
Dr. Sachee Agrawal,
A/201, Kshitij, GE Links, Ram Mandir Road, Goregaon West, Mumbai-400104, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Dengue and Chikungunya fever are arboviral diseases which are spread by a common vector. Being clinically indistinguishable, it is necessary to distinguish both either by molecular or serology testing.
Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of Dengue and Chikungunya mono-infection as well as dual infection in patients with acute febrile illness.
Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients with acute febrile illness were enrolled from April 2015 to October 2016. Detailed clinical history was documented. Samples were collected and subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) testing. For qualitative data, frequency percentage table was used and association was done using Chi-square test.
Results: Out of 200 patients, 8.5% had Chikungunya monoinfection and 41.5% patients had Dengue mono-infection. Dengue and Chikungunya co-infection was found in 4.5% patients. Most affected age group was 18-60 years wherein male preponderance was seen. In Chikungunya fever, 82.4% had morning stiffness and 35.3% had joint swelling; elbow and knee were the most commonly affected joints. In Chikungunya fever, 76.5% patients had restricted joint movements and 52.9% had Visual Analog Score (VAS) of 6-10. In Dengue fever, myalgia (67.5%) and rash (20.5%) were common symptoms. A total of 61.4% patients of Dengue fever had low platelet count. All Chikungunya cases and 88.1% Dengue cases detected by PCR had fever duration of less than five days. 85% of Chikungunya and 69% of Dengue cases detected by IgM ELISA had fever duration of more than five days.
Conclusion: Diagnostic algorithms of acute febrile illness cases should include testing by both molecular and serology for both the viruses, which is the absolute need of the hour.