Rare Dysplastic Gangliocytoma of Cerebellum: A Case Report ED04-ED06
Dr. Nidhish Kumar,
C/O Dr. Mohan Singh, Jagat Narayan Road, Kadam Kuan, Opposite Indralok Appartment, Patna, Bihar, India.
Lhermitte and Duclos first described Dysplastic Gangliocytoma in 1920. Lhermitte Duclos Disease (LDD) is an extremely rare disorder of uncertain prognosis and pathogenesis. LDD is recognised as a part of Cowden Disease, which being an autosomal-dominant phacomatosis and cancer syndrome. Till date only about 225 cases of LDD have currently been reported in medical literature. It is most commonly seen in young adults with a peak incidence in third or fourth decade with signs and symptoms of cerebellar dysfunction or increased intracranial pressure leading to obstructive hydrocephalus. A 36-year-old female came to Neuromedicine Outpatient Department (OPD) in a Tertiary Care Superspecialty Hospital with chief complaints of headache and vomiting, difficulty in swallowing liquid food since two months with no significant family history. The patientâ€™s general condition was not good with significant weakness on presentation. The patient was conscious, oriented with pulse rate of 78/bpm, blood pressure of 118/80 mm of Hg with bilateral clear chest with normal S1 S2 sound. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was found to be Eye response-4, Verbal response-5, Motor response-6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of patient showed large heterogeneous non-enhancing lesion involving left cerebellar hemisphere, vermis and cerebellar peduncle with widened cerebellar folia with a "Tigroid appearance". A diagnosis of Cerebellar Gangliocytoma was made and was treated successfully with surgery and diagnostically proven with biopsy and immunohistochemistry. The background history of Cowden syndrome was not present in index case.