Incidence and Risk Factors of Diaper Dermatitis in Hospitalised Children Aged 0-24 Months: An Epidemiological Descriptive Study in Iran LC01-LC04
Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
Introduction: Diaper dermatitis can cause unpleasant complications for the child and the family. However very limited studies are reported on the topic.
Aim: To investigate the incidence of diaper dermatitis and its risk factors in hospitalised children.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted at Qazvin, Iran, total of 228 hospitalised children were studied. A structured questionnaire and face to face interviews regarding risk factors of diaper dermatitis were used for data collection at admission to the hospital. Skin examination was performed using the diaper dermatitis severity scale per 48 hour. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis and the significant level was set as p<0.05.
Results: The incidence rate of diaper dermatitis in children admitted to the hospital was 50.9%. The mean age of children was 6.43 months. 127 (55.7%) were male out of 228 participants. The type of ward, gender, history of dermatitis, type of nutrition, stool consistency, diaper changes for more than 5 times per day, increase in the frequency of defecation and the use of protective creams significantly affected the incidence of dermatitis. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that one of the most important risk factors were hospitalisation in the neonatal ward or neonatal intensive care unit, a previous history of diaper dermatitis, female gender and breast feeding. These factors predicted a total of 31%-42% of the incidence of diaper dermatitis.
Conclusion: More than half of the children suffered from diaper dermatitis during hospital stay. The members of health care and treatment team should pay more attention to prevent this common skin problem in children.