Correlation of Fasting Serum Magnesium with Glycaemic and Nephropathy Status in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus OC21-OC25
Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Introduction: The estimated prevalence of Hypomagnesemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) ranges between 14% to 48% in various studies. Hypomagnesemia has been found to be associated with increased insulin resistance in patients of T2DM.
Aim: The aim was to estimate fasting serum magnesium levels in the patients of T2DM and to correlate serum magnesium with glycaemic status and nephropathy status.
Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at KIMS, Bhubaneswar between October 2017 to September 2019 which included a total of 187 T2DM patients. The glycaemic status was assessed by HbA1c and subdivided into good (HbA1c <7%), intermediate (HbA1c 7-9%) and poor control (HbA1c >9%). The nephropathy status was assessed by urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio (ACR) and subdivided into macroalbuminuria (Urine ACR >300 mg/g), microalbuminuria (Urine ACR 30-299 mg/g) and non-nephropathy (Urine ACR <30 mg/g) groups. Student t-test and One-way ANOVA test were used to find the significance of mean pattern of serum magnesium in different groups and Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to correlate serum magnesium with glycaemic and nephropathy status.
Results: Out of 187 patients, 49 (26.2%) patients were found to have hypomagnesemia. In the poor glycaemic status group, 30% of patients had hypomagnesemia as compared to 26% in the intermediate and 19% in the good glycaemic status group. In the macroalbuminuria group, 41.3% patients had hypomagnesemia as compared to 17.6% in the microalbuminuria group and 4.5% in the non-nephropathy group.
Conclusion: There was a weak negative correlation (r=-0.04) between serum magnesium and glycaemic status which was not statistically significant (p=0.62). There was a negative correlation (r=-0.17) between serum magnesium and nephropathy status which was found to be statistically significant (p=0.02).