Vitamin D Levels in Gestational Diabetes
Mellitus and its Influence on Future Type 2
Diabetes Mellitus- An Observational Study
Dr. Shenbaga Lalitha Sankar,
No. 14, Kalpavriksha Apartment, Second Floor, Mahadevan Street, Nehru Nagar, Chromepet, Chennai-600044 (Near Vivekananda Vidyalaya), Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and persistent hyperglycaemia postpartum is a rising health challenge. Multiple researches have contributed to the understanding of the magnitude of the causal factors involved. One such factor is Vitamin D deficiency though, widely studied exact role in development of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is not investigated.
Aim: To predict the risk of pre-diabetes and DM in GDM patients with Vitamin D deficiency.
Materials and Methods: Hundred pregnant women were recruited-50 study group, 50 control group; based on WHO criteria for GDM diagnosis at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Study parameters in antepartum period were maternal age, Body Mass Index (BMI), Vitamin D, Fasting blood glucose, 2 hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Study parameters in postpartum follow-up were fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, vitamin D. Mann-Whitney U-test and Binary Logistic regression analysis were the statistical tools used to predict the risk.
Results: Antepartum Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) showed 2.2 fold significantly increased risk for developing pre-diabetes and DM. High frequency of pre-diabetes (52% of cases) postdelivery (6 weeks) was proved. Maternal age, BMI and OGTT values had direct relationship in predicting risk of DM which was proved with postpartum follow-up.
Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency has a significant role in development of pre-diabetes and DM in GDM patients.