Infertile Semen Bacterial Isolates and their Local Multiple Antibacterial Resistance Pattern in Lagos, Nigeria
Dr. Christian Azubike Enwuru,
Department of Public Health, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, P.M.B, 2013, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.
Introduction: Infertility affects about 15% of couples globally and male contributory factor accounts for 20-30% of such cases. Antibacterial treatment is recommended for infertility of bacterial aetiology. However, Multidrug Resistance (MDR) of the organisms could impair the effectiveness of such infertility treatment.
Aim: The present study researched on the MDR pattern of bacteria from semen of infertile men in Lagos, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: This was a controlled cross-sectional study, where in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity tests were conducted on consecutive bacterial isolates from prospective infertile and fertile semen control groups, using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Instituteâ€™s (CLSI) interpretative criteria. Antibacterial resistance was expressed in % and semen quality of â€śbefore and afterâ€ť treatment was compered using t-test, p-value <0.05, at 95% confidence interval.
Results: A total of 174 (117 Gram positive and 55 Gram negative and 2 yeast-like cells) mainly Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli were studied, between 2009 and 2014. The Gram-positive cocci showed low resistance to Cefoxitin (9.2%) and Fluoroquinolone (45.9%); while Penicillin showed the highest resistance (98.37%). Within organismsâ€™ total resistance rates of 98.3% Amoxicillin (AMX), 89.7% Cloxacillin (CXC), 87.2% Nalidixic acid (NAL) and 83.7% Sulfonamide (Cotrimoxazole) (COT) were recorded. The most prevalent Gram negative isolate (E.coli), showed 100% resistance to AMX, 95.8% Erythromycin, 95.8% Streptomycin, 91.7% amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 83.3% tetracycline and 83.3% NAL. The most prevalent Gram positive isolate (S. aureus) had resistance rates 97% for AMX, 92.6% NAL, and 91.2% CXC among others. All MDR strains had MICs ranging 4-256 mg/L to the panel of antibiotics tested.
Conclusion: There is concurrence in the pattern of MDR in this study to those seen across the world; however, increasing rates were apparent, probably due to lack of effective control policies. There is need for drug surveillance and control in Nigeria.