Evaluation of Aetiology and Outcome of Acute Kidney Injury in a Tertiary Care Hospital of India- A Prospective Observational Study
Dr. Ramya SG,
204, B Block, SRM Medical Staff Quarters, SRM University, Kattankulathur,
Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: The Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a rapid decline in renal filtration function. The aetiological spectrum, prevalence of AKI and outcome is highly variable. This variation exists due to the difference in the criteria used, study population and demographic features. Huge differences are noted when AKI is compared in developing and developed countries. Hence, it is important to analyse the spectrum of AKI to facilitate earlier diagnosis and treatment which shall help in improving the outcome.
Aim: To study the prevalence, aetiology and outcome of AKI in the medical intensive care.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted in a medical intensive care for 18 months where 1490 patients were screened and 403 patients were included as AKI by KDIGO criteria. History, examination, appropriate investigations and treatment details including dialysis were noted. The serum creatinine levels were obtained every day, to know the time of onset of AKI, at the time of death or discharge, and after one month for patients who turned up for follow-up. Patients were categorised based on outcome as survivors and nonsurvivors. Survivors were divided into as fully recovered and partially recovered and those who left the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) against medical advice were termed as lost to follow-up.
Results: A total of 403 patients (27.04% of 1490) of medical intensive care admissions were found to have AKI. Sepsis was the most common cause of AKI. At the end of the month, 78.4% of AKI patients fully recovered, 1.2% partially recovered and the mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was higher in AKI associated with chronic medical conditions like cardiac failure, chronic liver disease and stroke.
Conclusion: If treated early, AKI is mostly reversible. Regional differences in AKI should be studied extensively and local guidelines should be formulated by experts for prevention and early treatment, to improve the disease outcome.