Evaluation of Risk Factors for Septic Complications after Laparotomy for Abdominal Trauma: A Longitudinal Cohort Study PC10-PC14
Ward 17, Old Building Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India.
Introduction: Septic complications are the most common cause of death in trauma patients who survive beyond 48 hours. Early diagnosis and treatment of infectious complications is essential to prevent life-threatening complications like Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and Multi-Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS).
Aim: To study the various risk factors for septic abdominal complications following laparotomy for trauma.
Materials and Methods: A prospective longitudinal cohort single-center study was conducted from November 2016 to March 2018. Sixty patients above the age of 12 years, who underwent laparotomy for abdominal trauma in the Surgical Department of our hospital, were included in the study. Various patient variables were compared with postoperative septic abdominal complications like wound infection, wound dehiscence, anastomotic leak and intra-abdominal abscess. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0.
Results: In the total 60 patients (35.60±16.54), significant association was seen between wound infection and dehiscence with the time interval between trauma and surgery (p<0.001), lesser Revised Trauma Score (RTS) (p<0.001) and greater Injur Severity Score (ISS) (p<0.001). A significant association of all septic complications was seen with the need for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (p<0.001) and the presence of associated injuries (p<0.001). Variables such as age, gender, co morbidities, Body Mass Index (BMI), pre-hospital care received, intraoperative findings and duration of ICU stay had no association with outcomes (p>0.05).
Conclusion: In trauma patients, factors like low RTS score, high ISS score, need for ICU stay and the presence of associated injuries may help the surgeons to decide in which patients to go for techniques like delayed closure of the wound, stoma instead of bowel anastomosis, etc., which may help to reduce postoperative septic complications.