A Randomised Controlled Trial on the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Ketamine in Neonatal Circumcision PC01-PC04
Victor Ifeanyichukwu Modekwe,
PMB 5025, Nnewi, Anambra, Nigeria.
Introduction: Procedural analgesia use in neonatal circumcision is not widespread in the developing world. An easy-to-administer, adequate and safe analgesia will encourage usage in neonatal circumcision. Orally administered ketamine may prove effective and safe, and may encourage procedural analgesia use in neonatal circumcision.
Aim: To determine the analgesic efficacy of oral ketamine in Plastibell® neonatal circumcision.
Materials and Methods: A hospital based randomised double blind controlled study was conducted at the paediatric surgery unit of the hospital, from March 2015 to December 2015. Total 121 neonates were sequentially recruited, and randomised into two groups. Group A received oral ketamine, and Group B received plain syrup (placebo) as procedural analgesia. Continuous pulse oximeter monitoring was done before, during and immediately after the procedure. The pre-procedural and intra-procedural peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) and Pulse Rate (PR) were determined at the various stages. Also, the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) scores were assessed during the stages of the procedure. Differences in mean scores were analysed. Mann-Whitney U test and Independent t-test were used to compare means of continuous variable, while Fisher's exact test was used to compare categorical variables. Significance was set at p<0.05.
Results: Sixty-one neonates received oral ketamine, while 60 received placebo. The intraoperative mean SpO2 were lower in the placebo group and significant at the tying stage with p=0.022. The mean intraoperative PR was higher in the placebo group and significant at dorsal-slit, tying and excision stages (p<0.05). The mean intraoperative NIPS scores were significantly higher in the placebo group.
Conclusion: Oral ketamine provides effective and safe analgesia for neonatal Plastibell® circumcision in comparison to placebo.