Prevalence and Clinical Pattern of Localised Hypomelanosis in Children: An Observational Study WC05-WC08
Flat No. 1132, Tvhlumbini Square Flats, 127a Bricklin Road,
Purashawalkam Chennai-600007, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Pigmentary changes in children can be a concern to parents, enabling them to seek medical opinion. Hypopigmentary lesions in the paediatric age group can be a trivial finding or may be a part of a multisystem disease. Identifying and prompt management of these lesions addresses the systemic involvement if any, and parents’ concern as well.
Aim: To observe the prevalence and clinical pattern of localised hypomelanotic disorders in the paediatric age group (0-18 years).
Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based observational study conducted for a period of two years (August 2017- August 2019), which included 204 paediatric patients with localised hypomelanotic lesion in children who attended the Dermatology Out Patient Department (OPD). Demographic data such as age, sex, history of onset and progression of skin lesions, general examination, specific cutaneous examination including the site, size, number, symmetry, distribution, etc., were recorded. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical methods.
Results: Out of 204 cases, the most common hypopigmentary disorder was Pityriasis versicolor (38.7%), followed by Seborrhoeic dermatitis (18.1%), Pityriasis alba (8.8%) and Polymorphic light eruption (7.8%). Among them female children were 111 (54%) and male children were 93 (46%). The most commonly involved age group was 12-18 years (35%), followed by 6-12 years (32%). Face was the most commonly involved site accounting for, followed by back. The localised hypopigmented lesions are predominantly involved in the sun exposed area (78%). History of atopy and family history of atopy were seen in 5% and 8%, respectively.
Conclusion: Pityriasis versicolor was the most common condition seen in this study. The sun exposed areas were frequently involved with face being the commonest. There was no underlying systemic disease involvement observed in this study. However certain conditions like hypomelanosis of Ito and Hansen’s need long term follow-up and prompt treatment to prevent complications respectively.