Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl Premedication on Quality of Extubation in Children undergoing Tonsillectomy: A Prospective Cohort Study UC18-UC22
MG Estate, Kaavumpadi, Thirurkkad, Aripra (PO), Perinthalmanna-679321, Kerala, India.
Introduction: Smooth extubation in children is a challenging task, especially those undergoing tonsillectomy. Dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 receptor agonist has been found to be beneficial in paediatric anaesthesia due to its anxiolytic, sedative and analgesic properties. It also attenuates haemodynamic stress response and airway reflexes to intubation and extubation. Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid is also extensively used in paediatric anaesthesia.
Aim: To compare the effects of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl premedication on quality of extubation and extubation haemodynamics.
Materials and Methods: The prospective cohort study was conducted in 120 children divided into two groups of 60 each, aged 5-12 years, belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologistsâ€™ (ASA) physical status I and II, posted for elective tonsillectomy under general anaesthesia. Group F received fentanyl 2 µg/ kg intravenously and group D, dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/kg as intravenous infusion over 10 minutes as premedication. The time from discontinuation of anaesthetics to extubation and to opening the eyes in response to verbal stimuli were noted. The quality of extubation was evaluated according to the 5 point extubation score and postoperative sedation assessed using Ramsay sedation score. The haemodynamic parameters were monitored immediately after discontinuation of anaesthetics and at 1, 3, 5 and 10 minutes postextubation. Any complications like airway obstruction, bradycardia, and hypotension were noted and treated appropriately. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 22 was used for statistical analysis and categorical outcomes compared with Chi-square test/Fisherâ€™s-Exact test.
Results: Extubation was smoother in group receiving dexmedetomidine. The median time from discontinuation of anaesthetics to extubation and eye opening was significantly shorter in dexmedetomidine group compared to fentanyl group (p<0.001). Postoperative sedation score was comparable between the two groups. Heart Rate (HR) and Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) monitored showed significantly stable values in the dexmedetomidine group (p<0.001) when compared to fentanyl soon after discontinuation of anaesthetics and 1, 3, 5 and 10 minutes postextubation.
Conclusion: Premedication with dexmedetomidine 0.5 Âµg/kg intravenously provides better quality and haemodynamics of extubation compared to fentanyl 2 µg/kg in children undergoing tonsillectomy, without causing significant sedation.