Demystifying Breast FNAC's Based on the International Academy of Cytology, Yokohama Breast Cytopathology System- A Retrospective Study EC01-EC05
Dr. Malathi Mukunda Pai,
Associate Professor, Cytology Division, Department of Pathology, Main Block,
Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Dr M H Marigowda Road, Hombegowda
Nagar, Bangalore-560029, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Breast cancer affects 2.1 million women each year and is the most common cancer among females, followed by lung, colorectum, uterus, and cervix. Breast cancer accounted for 6,26,679 (6.6%) deaths in 2018. Breast cancer incidence is on the rise in every part of the globe, including developed countries. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) shows high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in evaluation of breast lesions. FNAC is part of the triple test and is the gold standard for assessment. The new reporting system for breast FNAC, proposed by the International Academy of Cytology (IAC) Yokohama Breast Cytopathology System, has standardised the reporting system to categorise breast lesions and as unmasked the diagnostic dilemma faced by reporting cytopathologist.
Aim: The study aimed to categorise the samples according to IAC Yokohama Breast Cytopathology System and assess the Risk of Malignancy (ROM) for each category and increase the diagnostic yield of breast FNAC.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study included 1,467 breast FNAC cases, which were retrieved and reclassified based on the newly proposed IAC Yokohama System into five categories during January 2017-December 2018 in Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology (KMIO), Bangalore. Histopathology correlation was done, and the Risk of Malignancy (ROM) was assessed whenever possible. The study results were analysed using Microsoft excel 2007, sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV), and accuracy ratios were calculated using the MedCalc diagnostic test evaluation calculator, keeping histologic diagnosis as the gold standard.
Results: Re-categorisation of 1,467 cases was done according to the Yokohama breast cytopathology system as insufficient material, benign, atypical, suspicious for malignancy, and malignant. The histopathology diagnosis was available in 1,069 cases. The respective ROM for each category was, 7.6% for category 1 (Insufficient), 15.26% for category 2 (Benign), 65.38% for category 3 (Atypical), 83.33% for category 4 (Suspicious) and 99.18% for category 5 (Malignant). Considering malignant cases as positive, sensitivity-86.75%, specificity-97.32%, PPV-99.19%, NPV-66.06% and accuracy of 88.96% was deduced.
Conclusion: It is recommended to incorporate the IAC Yokohama system to categorise breast cytopathology with uniform terminologies. This will help diagnose breast lesions more consistently and accurately, which in turn helps the clinician manage the disease and predict the ROM and the patient outcome.