Prevalence of Dry Eye Disease in Medical Students in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Cross-sectional Study NC05-NC08
Dr. Samiksha Modi,
127, Vama Hostel, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Vadodara-390020, Gujarat, India.
Introduction: Dry eyes is a chronic disorder affecting the ocular surface causing tear film instability, visual problems, redness and a feeling of irritation in the eye. It is an emerging preventable health hazard among the young individuals.
Aim: To find the prevalence and risk factors of Dry Eye Disease (DED) in the medical field amongst the postgraduates in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional observational study. All participants were assessed on a number of variables, which included duration of residency, smoking, use of cosmetics, screen time and distance of screen from eyes. The present study enrolled 132 students (264 eyes), out of which 66 students were (132 eyes) from surgical field and 66 students were (132 eyes) were from non-surgical field. They were examined for a panel of tests for DED, i.e., Schirmer Test, Tear Break Up Time (TBUT) Test, Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) grading and Conjunctival Staining. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) v20 was used for statistical analysis. All the qualitative data were analysed by using Chi-square test.
Results: Overall prevalence of DED was 56.81% in the medical field amongst residents. Based on the results of all the conventional test performed, most of the residents belonged to the mild category followed by moderate and least in the severe category. Based on TBUT, prevalence of DED was more in surgical (62.67%) compared to non-surgical (37.33%) residents with an Odds Ratio (OR) of 3.35, p-value <0.0001 and risk ratio of 1.67. Residents who spend more screen time (>4 hours/day) and use screen at a distance more than arm-forearm length have more prevalence of DED (p-value of 0.001 and 0.002, respectively).
Conclusion: Overall prevalence of DED was 56.81% in the medical field amongst residents. It is concluded that surgeons have a 3.35 chance greater than non-surgical residents for development of DED. Early diagnosis and curbing the modifiable risk factors can reduce the burden of DED and improve the quality of life.