Association and Determinants of Decision Delivery Interval of Emergency Caesarean Sections and Perinatal Outcome in a Tertiary Institution QC01-QC05
John Okafor Egede,
Consultant, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Alex Ekwueme Federal
Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
Introduction: A Decision to Delivery Interval (DDI) of 30 minutes for emergency caesarean section has been widely recommended but there is little evidence to support it. This target may not be practicable in a busy maternity unity and therefore, the anticipated beneficial effect on neonatal outcome requires re-evaluation.
Aim: To determine the association between decision-delivery interval and perinatal outcome of emergency caesarean section at Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (AEFUTHA) over a period of four years.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of the cases in emergency caesarean sections performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, AEFUTHA from 1st January 2012 to 1st January 2016. Hospital records of the women with singleton pregnancy at term who delivered through emergency caesarean sections were retrieved. Data extracted include socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, duration between decision for caesarean section and intervention, indications for the caesarean section, reasons for delay in DDI, association between booking status and DDI and association of DDI and foetal outcome, APGAR score at 1st and 5th minutes and admission to NICU. Data were analysed with IBM statistics version 20. The p-value <0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.
Results: A total of 638 emergency caesarean sections involving singleton pregnancies at term, 522 (81.8%) of which had complete records and were analysed. The mean age of participants was 27.8Â±5.1 years, 89.3% were para 1-4 and 55.0% were unbooked. Only 6 (1.1%) of the emergency caesarean sections were performed within the recommended 30 minutes of DDI. The mean DDI was 189Â±124 minutes with range of 25 minutes to 1220 minutes. Two cases performed within 25 minutes were cases of foetal distress and cord prolapse while only a case of reduced foetal movement was delayed to 1220 minutes. The most common indications for emergency caesarean section were cephalopelvic disproportion 129 (24.7%) and foetal distress 65 (12.5%). The major cause of delay was delay in cross-matching of blood for surgery 136 (26.1%) while delay in giving informed consent contributed 67 (12.8%). There was no correlation between DDI of 75 minutes or above and the 1st minute APGAR score (AOR=2.48, CI=0.86-7.16, p-value=0.09), 5th minute APGAR score (AOR=3.08, CI=1.55-6.11, p-value=0.09), foetal outcome (AOR=0.82, CI=017-3.79, p-value=0.08) and admission to Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU) (AOR=2.08, CI=0.77-5.56, p-value=0.14).
Conclusion: This study showed that there was no correlation between DDI>75 minutes and poor perinatal outcome. Efforts should be made to strengthen the health system and improve the quality of care in order to keep DDI within this time limit for improved perinatal health outcome and indices.