Analysis of Caesarean Section Rates Using the Robson Ten-group Classification at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Eastern India: A Cross-sectional Study QC24-QC28
C-64, Swastik Towers, Lanka Main Road (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: The Robson ten-group classification identifies the womenâ€™s groups that make the greatest contribution to the overall rate of Caesarean Section (CS), and thereby helps to optimise CS rates. It also helps to ensure optimum maternal and perinatal outcomes.
Aim: To examine the rates of CS using the Robson ten-group classification, and also to identify the womenâ€™s groups that contribute most to CS rates in a tertiary care teaching and referral hospital in Kolkata, India.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of one year from May 2012 to April 2013. All pregnant women admitted under the supervision of a particular unit of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and delivered in that hospital during the study period were included. Necessary data collection was done on the following parameters, i.e., previous obstetric history, category of pregnancy, course of labour and delivery, and gestational age. The women were categorised into the ten Robson groups. For each group, the CS rate, relative size of the group, and the percentage contribution made by the group to the overall CS rate were calculated and expressed in percentages. Chi-square test, Z-test and the trial version of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 were used to analyse the data.
Results: The CS rate in the present study was 43.13% (735 out of 1704 deliveries). Not only the largest group in terms of relative size 649 (38.08%), the Robson group 1 had a CS rate of 41.75% (271/649), as well as the largest absolute number of caesarean deliveries. The group 1 made the largest contribution (271) to the overall CS rate (15.9%). The group 5 was the second largest contributing group 155 (9.09%), followed by group 3 96 (5.63%) and group 2 69 (4.04%). In the present study group 5 showed the CS rate of 95.67%, group 3 with CS rate of 24.48% and group 2 with CS rate of 60.52%.
Conclusion: The Robson groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were found to be the major contributors to the overall CS rate. These groups may be targeted for effective interventions to reduce the CS rate. Active management of labour in a primigravida with spontaneous onset, reduction of primary caesarean delivery, promoting vaginal birth after CS, and careful assessment of cases before induction of labour in nulliparous women, are likely to be few effective strategies.