Chronic Pain and Depression: A Community Based Study in a Rural Area of West Bengal VC17-VC20
Dr. Rivu Basu,
3, Gauranga Mandir Road, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Introduction: Chronic pain is one of the most neglected health problems throughout the world. A close association of depression with chronic pain adds to the burden. There is severe dearth of epidemiological studies regarding depression in chronic pain among general population in India.
Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain among the selected rural population and to find out association between chronic pain and depression, if any.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done with the objective of studying the relationships between sociodemographic factors, depression with characteristics of chronic pain among adult population in a community setting. Data was collected from 697 adult (>18 years) chronic pain (>12 weeks duration) sufferers chosen randomly with proportionate representation from all 81 villages of Amdanga block, West Bengal, through a household-based survey in cross-sectional design. A pre-designed, pre-tested structured questionnaire containing socio-demographic information where Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Physical Functional Ability Questionnaire (FAQ-5) were used. During analysis, indices representing perceived pain, impairment and functional ability were generated from the questionnaire by principal component analysis.
Results: Low Back Pain (LBP) was found to be significantly higher among females that is 57.7% (p-value=0.022), followed by knee pain (54.8%). Age (p<0.001), Educational level (p<0.001), Income (p<0.001) were found to be significantly associated with perceived pain, impairment, and functional ability, which again show significant monotonic relationship with severity of depression. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is found in 9.04% (95% CI: 7.95%-10.13%) of chronic pain sufferers.
Conclusion: Frequency of knee pain increases with aging, this points towards its degenerative nature. Perceived pain and impairment get higher while functional ability gets lower as the severity of depression increases.