Incidence of Malignant Diseases in Punjab: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Level Government Hospital in Punjab XC01-XC04
F-6, Tej Bagh Colony, Patiala, Punjab, India.
Introduction: Cancer is a grave problem with increase in incidence of various malignancies at an alarming rate in Punjab. Crude annual incidence rate of all cancers in Punjab has increased from 58.0 in 1990 to 85.5 in 2016 while crude mortality incidence ratio of all cancers in Punjab is 0.61 in females and 0.81 in males. Not only it is increasing mortality and morbidity, but it is also increasing the economic burden on a state already facing financial crisis. The exact burden of malignancies is not well-known, although many local surveys have been done.
Aim: To know the accurate burden of malignant diseases in patients presenting to a tertiary level government hospital in Punjab, India.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study in which data of all cases diagnosed to have malignant disease on histopathology at Government Medical College and Rajindra Hospital, Patiala, Punjab, from January, 2006 to December, 2015. The data was retrieved on yearly basis and total of each malignant disease was done to know the exact incidence of various malignancies over the decade by the measure of relative frequency.
Results: A total of 4270 patients (41.65% in age group 41 to 70 years) were diagnosed to have malignant disease on histopathology out of which 2341 (54.82%) were females and 1929 (45.18%) were males. Leading causes of malignancy were the cancers of the female genital organs i.e., 20.05%, followed by breast cancer i.e., 18.17% and cancers of lip, oral cavity and pharynx i.e., 15.36%.
Conclusion: Maximum incidence was seen in carcinoma breast followed by carcinoma cervix and carcinoma larynx. Early screening, timely diagnosis and management along with regular scrutiny of records should be done in routine to know the actual burden of cancer in the society.