Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Diseases among Secondary School Students in Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq ZC21-ZC26
Nasreen Hamarash Hamonari,
Gresur, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Introduction: A healthy oral cavity is a vital state for a healthy living, which can be influenced by oral cavity diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease. Dental caries and periodontal disorders are the major oral health problems and indicators of the oral health burden worldwide.
Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases among secondary school students and their association with socio-demographic factors in Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a randomly selected sample of 809 high school students (395 females and 414 males) aged 14-20 years from eight secondary schools using multistage random sampling in four quarters of Duhok city from December 2018 to May 2019. The dental caries status was assessed by the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and periodontal status was assessed by using the Gingival Index (GI) and Plaque Index (PI).
Results: The prevalence of dental caries was significantly higher (p=0.002) among males (93.5%) in comparison to females (86.8%). Also, the DMFT ≥5 among males (62.6%) was significantly higher than that (40.8%) among females (p<0.001). No significant association was detected between DMFT ≥5 and the socio-economic status (p=0.090). Likewise, the prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis was significantly higher among males (63.5%) than females (55.2%) (p=0.016). However, the prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis was higher among those living in low socio-economic quarters (63%) compared with those living in high socio-economic quarters (56.2%) of Duhok city (p=0.049).
Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence of a high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases among secondary school students aged 14-20 years in Duhok city. Mean caries and gingival indices were significantly higher in males in comparison to females.