Association of Demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Parameters with Clinical Outcome of COVID-19 Patients of Bangalore: A Cross-sectional Study
Avinash Hanbe Rajanna,
Department of General Medicine, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Although the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is creating a major global health crisis, the risk factors for mortality and the detailed clinical course of disease has not yet established.
Aim: To determine association of the demographic data of COVID-19 patients with clinical profile and disease outcomes.
Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional, single-center study considered adults patients of both the gender from March 2020 to June 2020 with an estimated sample size of 2000 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection by Reverse TranscriptasePolymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Necessary demographic and clinical data were collected and selected subjects were followed-up until discharge or death. Subjects were classified as those who survived (1839 patients) and succumbed (138 patients) to death. Students t-test was used for comparing continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical data between the groups.
Results: The study included 1977 patients with a male-to-female ratio of 1:0.62. Fever, dyspnoea and cough were noted as the major symptoms prevalent among patients who succumbed to death when compared to those who survived (p-value <0.001). Statistically significant variables noted between the groups were age (survived mean age of 42.74±15.15 years vs mean age 59.12±12.95 in those who succumbed to death, p-value <0.001), age groups (p-value <0.001), gender (p-value 0.042), haemoglobin, Total Leucocyte Count (TLC), neutrophil, lymphocytes,Neutrophil to LymphocyteRatio (NLR), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, all the co-morbidity variables and the asymptomatic status. Variables identified as significant predictors of disease outcomes were Haemoglobin (Hb), TLC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, NLR, LDH and ferritin (p-value <0.001). Most of the subjects belonging to the mortality group required oxygen and other Intensive Care Unit (ICU) facilities when compared to the survival group (p-value <0.001). The mean days of viral clearance noted in COVID-19 subjects was around 8.98±3.54 days.
Conclusion: Haemoglobin (HB), TLC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, NLR, LDH and ferritin are noted as significant predictors of COVID-19 outcome. Biochemical monitoring of COVID-19 patients helps in identifying critically ill patie