Correlation between Intraocular Pressure and
Visual Field Loss in Primary Open Angle and
Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma:
A Cross-sectional Study
Dr. Susan Philip,
Pavoor House, Nanthen Code, Trivandrum-695003, Kerala, India.
Introduction: Glaucoma is characterised by structural damage to optic nerve head with corresponding visual field defects and often associated with increased Intraocular Pressure (IOP). It may be broadly classified as Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG). It is one of the leading causes of global blindness, and a major proportion occurs in Indian population.
Aim: To study the correlation between pretreatment IOP and extent of visual field loss in PACG and POAG.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India from April 2016 to May 2017. Newly diagnosed cases of PACG (25 patients-13 males, 12 females, mean age 58.72±10.07 years) and POAG (85 patients- 45 males, 40 females, mean age 60.28±10.42 years) underwent a detailed glaucoma evaluation which included IOP measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometer and visual field testing using Humphrey Field Analysis (HFA) 24-2 pattern. Mean Deviation (MD), Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD) and Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Score (AGIS) was calculated from reliable visual field test result. All data were coded and entered in statistical software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 for analysis. The correlation between pretreatment IOP and visual field loss in patients with PACG and POAG was determined by Pearson correlation of coefficient (r).
Results: Amongst the total 110 patients of this study, 25 patients were of PACG while POAG were in 85 patients. A significant correlation between pretreatment IOP and the extent of visual field loss in PACG was noted. There was no significant correlation in POAG. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation between IOP and AGIS score in PACG r=0.805, p<0.001), not in POAG (r=0.026, p=0.816). Correlation between IOP and MD was statistically significant in PACG (r=0.812, p<0.001) but not in POAG (r=-0.058, p=0.597). The correlation between IOP and PSD was not statistically significant in both groups (p-value=0.450).
Conclusion: A significant correlation between IOP and visual field loss in PACG indicates that extent of visual field damage can be controlled by controlling IOP alone in PACG. The correlation between the pretreatment IOP and visual field loss in POAG is not statistically significant which agrees with the current proposed pathophysiology of optic neuropathy in which multiple factors influence in addition to IOP.