Effect of Surface Characteristics of Different Implant Abutment Materials on the Microbial Adhesion- An In vitro Study ZC10-ZC14
Dr. Ramesh P Nayakar,
Professor and Research Guide, Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge,
KAHER KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: While performing the two stage implants, microgap between the fixture, abutment and the superstructure are potential areas that can cause peri-implantitis. The surface roughness and surface energy of the implant abutment materials play an important role in the microbial colonisation on their surface and can help the clinician to choose a better implant abutment material in terms of microbial affinity.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of surface characteristics of different implant abutment materials on microbial adhesion.
Materials and Methods: The comprehensive analytical experimental study was conducted at KAHER KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India between January 2017-December 2017. Forty-five (n=45) identical disc shaped specimens were fabricated using; Zirconia (Group A), Titanium alloy (Group B) and Surgical Grade Stainless Steel (Group C). The surface roughness was assessed for all test groups by Profilometer and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The Surface energy was evaluated for all the test group specimens using Goniometer. Microbial adhesion and assessment were performed using sonicating and vortexing method for all the three groups using three different bacterial strains. The Colony Forming Units (CFU) for all the specimens were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis to draw the conclusions from the resultant data.
The resultant data was analysed using SPSS software (Version 20). In order to collectively compare the means of the study groups pair-wise comparison of the test group was done using paired t-test with (p<0.05), and correlation between the surface parameters and CFU counts was done using Karl Pearsonâ€™s correlation coefficient.
Results: On pair-wise comparison of three groups (A, B, and C) with respect to surface roughness, there were statistically significant differences in surface roughness (Ra values) between all the groups p<0.001. While comparing the three groups with respect to surface energy, there were statistically significant differences in Wetting Angle (WA) values between all the groups (p<0.001**) except between group B and A (p=0.15). Zirconia showed the least CFU counts for Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) though the differences were not statistically significant. Karl Pearsonâ€™s correlation coefficient between surface roughness and surface energy with CFU counts showed a strongly positive correlation for all microbial species and was statistically significant p<0.001**.
Conclusion: There was a strong positive correlation of surface roughness and surface energy to CFU counts. Zirconia showed a low colonisation potential against P.intermedia and A.actinomycetemcomitans than titanium alloy and surgical grade stainless steel.