Pervasiveness and Epidemiological Profile of SARS-CoV-2 Infection among the Population of Majha Region of Punjab,India
Dr. Shailpreet Kaur Sidhu,
Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, GMC, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
Introduction: There are many types of coronaviruses that causes respiratory and intestinal infection in humans. Among these coronaviruses, is a group of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-like bat coronavirus, including both SARS-CoV and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that comprise a unique clade under the subgenus Sarbecovirus. The SARS-CoV-2 strains in India are more closely related to bat-CoVRaTG13 (93% homology) than pangolin CoV (83.5% homology). India reported its first case of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) on January 30, 2020. Punjab, a state in northwestern India comprises of 22 districts which are classified into three major distinct regions viz. Majha, Malwa and Doaba. Four districts of Majha region of Indian state of Punjab are Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Gurdaspur and Pathankot.
Aim: The present study describes the SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology based on samples tested for Coronavirus; received at Viral Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (VRDL), Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
Materials and Methods: This epidemiological study was designed taking into consideration three main factors i.e. the gender, the age groups and the factor whether the individual has any symptoms or not. To study their context of applicability and its interpretation, a total of 3,47,418 samples from period of 01st April 2020 to 31st October 2020 were included in this study. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) amplification by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) of SARS-CoV-2 from nasopharyngeal/ oropharyngeal swabs of all individuals revealed confirmation of 17,920 positive samples. Total 2,29,310 males and 1,18,108 females were tested for the COVID-19 infection. Social science statistics online tool (https://www.socscistatistics.com/tests/) was used for Chi-square (χ2 ) test to analyse different parameters.
Results: Maximum number of COVID-19 positive patients was detected in 21 to 30 years age group (p<0.05). Highest positivity ratio of samples was observed in individuals exceeding the age of 50 years. Number of asymptomatic individuals was found to be quite higher than symptomatic individuals in total population. Overall percent positivity of asymptomatic individuals was 4.81% (p<0.00001), which accounts to 4.71% of total number of tested individuals in this study.
Conclusion: COVID-19 is an evolving disease and data from this study elucidates the epidemiological profile of the SARSCoV-2 infection among population of Majha region of Punjab state of Indian subcontinent.