Causal Relationship Model of Factors Affecting Workplace Happiness among Head Nurses’ of Secondary Hospital at Northern Region, Thailand
Dr. Jirarat Ruetrakul,
Mueang District, Phitsanulok, Thailand.
Introduction: There is a growing recognition for workplace happiness worldwide. If employees work in an unfavorable atmosphere, this may lead to boredom, discouragement and disengagement as well as alienation from colleagues; thereby becoming unhealthy for both employees and organisations.
Aim: To develop a causal relationship model of factors affecting workplace happiness among head nurses and test the model with empirical data collected with the chosen research sample.
Materials and Methods: This research uses the causal relationship research method. A five point Likert scale questionnaire about factors affecting workplace happiness was administered to 196 head nurses at secondary hospitals, northern Thailand. It included six latent variables: 1) leader characteristics; 2) work satisfaction; 3) awareness of the professional values; 4) organisational climate; 5) social support; and 6) workplace happiness. Analysis instruments were descriptive statistics i.e., frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, Pearson product moment correlation, and linear structural relationship model.
Results: Based on the causal relationship model, the following factors were identified as influencing workplace happiness among the head nurses: social support, work satisfaction, organisational climate, leader characteristics and awareness of the professional values, respectively. After adjustment as alternative model, the causal relationship model of workplace happiness fit the empirical data, with Chi-square (?2 )= 238.098, df=205, Comparative Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, Root Mean Squares Error of Approximation (RMSEA)=0.02, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI)=0.98, Standardised Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR)=0.04. This means that the variables in the model can explain the variance of workplace happiness by 46.6%.
Conclusion: Drawn from the causal relationship model of factors influencing happiness at work among the head nurses, the factors with the most influencing overall impact on happiness at work are: work satisfaction, organisational climate, social support, and leadership characteristics.