Food Consumption Pattern of Adolescents in Delhi-NCR Born Full Term with Low Birth Weight with Reference to the New Estimated Average Requirement OC23-OC28
Dr. Geeta Trilok-Kumar,
F-4, Hauz Khas Enclave, New Delhi-110016, India.
Introduction: Nutrition and lifestyle transition in India have attributed to the burden of malnutrition in early life. Evidence suggests that children born Low Birth Weight (LBW) are at increased risk of later life diseases.
Aim: The study aims to describe the nutrient intake of term LBW children with reference to the new estimated average requirement.
Materials and Methods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted in the premises of Institute of Home Economics, Delhi. Dietary intake data for 139 term LBW children (9-12 years) was collected using 24-hour recall. Nutrient and food group intake was analysed using Diet Cal (version 10). Gender differences in dietary intake were assessed using Mann-Whitney U test. Proportion of children with micronutrient intake below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was also estimated. Data was analysed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test.
Results: The protein intake of more than 50% children provided 10-15% of energy. Carbohydrate contributed to less than 55% of day’s energy while energy from fat was more than 30% for majority of children. Percentage of children with inadequate micronutrient intake ranged from 44.6% for Vitamin C to 100% for Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D. A high proportion of children had low consumption of green leafy vegetables, nuts, oilseeds, and fleshy foods. The intake of milk and milk products were significantly higher in boys as compared to girls (p=0.02).
Conclusion: There is a transition from carbohydrate dense foods to high fat processed foods that are inadequate in micronutrients. Findings highlight the need for an intensive public health approach to improve the diet quality of the Indian population.