Outcome of Biological Plating of Extra-articular Proximal Tibia Fractures
Dr. Akshay Babarao Ingale,
Plot No. 34, Pathan Layout, Sambhaji Nagar, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: The most prominent transformation in the treatment of fractures has been modified from intensive open reduction and internal fixation with absolute stability to the biological fixation with relative stability and secondary healing with callus formation, with priority on preservation of the vascularity of bone and soft tissue to improve fracture healing.
Aim: To evaluate the outcome of biological fixation of extra-articular proximal tibia fractures in adults using the locking compression plate.
Materials and Methods: The present prospective longitudinal study was conducted at Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur, which included 30 patients who had extra-articular proximal tibia fractures belonging to AO type 41A2 and 41A3 treated by proximal tibia lateral locking plate 4.5/5.0 mm. The patients were followed-up at two weeks, six weeks, three months, six months and one year. The fracture union, coronal, sagittal alignment was assessed radiologically at the end of follow-up. Functionally the outcome was evaluated using lower extremity functional score. Descriptive statistics were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Biological plating with locking compression plate has shown promising results both in terms of function and radiology. There was non-significant difference in lower extremity functional score between patients with malunion and normal alignment. Mean union time was 19.93 weeks with a standard deviation of 2.21 weeks. There was non-significant difference between the range of motion and fracture type (p-value 0.38) as well as that between Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS) and fracture type (p-value 0.0501). On functional evaluation of patients treated with biological plating, there was statistical significance in Knee Range of Motion (ROM) for the patients between malunion and normal alignment (p value 0.01).
Conclusion: The biological fixation using minimally invasive techniques is an effective method of stabilisation for extra-articular proximal tibia fracture, yielding good mechanical alignment and protecting soft tissues and blood supply, leading to higher union rates with good functional outcome.