Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and its Associated Risk Factors on Osteoarthritis: A Cross-sectional Survey
Office No. 50, Department of Health Management, College of Public Health and
Health Informatics, University of Hail, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia.
Introduction: Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD) and several other metabolic factors are known to be involved in the aggravation of Osteoarthritis (OA). A better understanding of the role of these metabolic factors and diseases is required to alleviate the OA progression.
Aim: To analyse the prevalence of VDD in OA patients and its correlation with co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension (HT), Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and acidity and also to assess the effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) and increasing age on the developmental process of OA.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken during September 2018 to March 2019 in King Khaled, King Salman and Hail General Hospitals located in Ha’il province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 501 participants of OA patients that visited these hospitals. Data pertaining to the variables in this study such as diabetes, HT, cardiovascular problems, vitamin D and calcium deficiency, acidity and anthropometric details was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation with the statistical program SPSS version 21.
Results: VDD, calcium deficiency and acidity were the most prevalent factors observed in the patients. Vitamin D and calcium deficiency was observed to be higher in females than males. VDD significantly correlated to diabetes, HT, acidity and age, both in females and males. Cardiovascular disease and BMI correlated with VDD only in males but not in females. BMI showed positive correlation with HT in males (p<0.01) but not females, and also correlated with age (p<0.01) irrespective of gender.
Conclusion: The study concluded that VDD is more prevalent in females than males in Ha’il region. It is correlated to variables such as diabetes, HT, acidity, BMI and increasing age, which are identified as risk factors contributing to the progression of OA.