CSF Neurofilament-H Levels as a Potential Prognostic Marker in Patients of Guillain-Barré Syndrome- A Cohort Study
Dr. Tanveer Hassan,
Rajbagh Extension, Srinagar-190008, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Introduction: The prognosis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)at an early stage with explicit biomarkers is critical to distinguish patients with possibility of poor recovery. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) serves as an impending source for biomarkers that portrays the exact biochemical changes.
Aim: To find out if there is any prognostic value of high CSF phosphorylated Neurofilament Heavy subunit (pNf-H) levels, measured during first two weeks of onset of GBS, as assessed by the level of disability at six months after the onset of GBS.
Materials and Methods: The cohort study was conducted in the Department of Neurology and Department of Immunology and Molecular Medicine, at the Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India, over a period of two years from August 2015 to August 2017. Sixty two patients who satisfied the required diagnostic standards for GBS (study group) and 35 patients with tension-type headache (control group) were selected for the study. After clinical and electrophysiological assessment, CSF samples were collected. A commercially available sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit, manufactured by BioVendor-Laboratorní medicína (Czech Republic), was used for measuring human pNf-H quantitatively.
Results: Mean CSF pNf-H level in patients with good outcome was 325.3 pg/mL whereas, in patients with poor outcome it was 3655.2 pg/mL. CSF pNf-H levels were found to be suggestively higher in GBS patients with poor outcome as compared to those with good outcome. Only eight patients in good outcome group had pathologically high CSF Nf-H levels whereas 10 patients in poor outcome group had CSF Nf-H levels ≤730 pg/mL. The odds ratio was 17.1 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 3.83-76.29). Thus, high CSF Nf-H levels on admission predicted poor outcome in GBS (p-value <0.001). Moderate degree of positive correlation was found between CSF Nf-H levels and outcome (F score) at six months (R=0.684; p-value <0.001).
Conclusion: It can be determined that higher values of CSF pNf-H in GBS (acute stage), could serve as a predictive marker indicative of poor prognosis.