Snake Bite Presenting as Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Rare Case Report
Dr. Amol Andhale,
Raghobaji Hostel, 3rd Floor, Room No. T 13, Warrdha-442004, Maharashtra, India.
Snake bite is predominantly an occupational hazard and causes severe health issues. Snake poisoning in India is a significant and prevalent cause of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). In India, the occurrence of AKI after snake bite is 13-32%. All over the world every year, 1,50,000 people die as a result of it. Multiple mechanisms such as haemodynamic disturbances, direct tubular toxicity, coagulopathy, haemoglobinuria, and myoglobinuria can cause AKI after bites by snakes belonging to the Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae families. Renal pathologic findings include acute tubular necrosis, cortical necrosis, interstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis, and vasculitis. Thrombotic Microangiopathy (TMA) as a cause of snakebite-induced AKI is rarely reported in literature. Fewer details are known about the clinical course, optimal management, and overall prognosis of this entity. Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) is a clinical disease that includes TMA, thrombocytopenia, and AKI as a triad. The HUS is a heterogeneity of illnesses with diverse aetiology which results in presentation, therapy and outcomes variance. Hereby, authors report a case of a 55-year-old female who was bitten by Russell’s viper and developed HUS. Patient eventually progressed to end stage renal disease and was advised lifelong haemodialysis. TMA should be taken into account as a probable cause of AKI following a snake bite. Plasma exchanges have yet to be determined in snake bite TMA.